Today in History
September 23

1553 The Sadians defeat the last of their enemies and establish themselves as rulers of Morocco.
1561 Philip II of Spain gives orders to halt colonizing efforts in Florida.
1577 William of Orange makes his triumphant entry into Brussels, Belgium.
1667 Slaves in Virginia are banned from obtaining their freedom by converting to Christianity.
1739 The Austrians sign the Treaty of Belgrade after having lost the city to the Turks.
1779 The American navy under John Paul Jones, commanding from Bonhomme Richard, defeats and captures the British man-of-war Serapis.
1788 Louis XVI of France declares the Parliament restored.
1795 A national plebiscite approves the new French constitution, but so many voters abstain that the results are suspect.
1803 British Major General Sir Arthur Wellesley defeats the Marathas at Assaye, India.
1805 Lieutenant Zebulon Pike pays $2,000 to buy from the Sioux a 9-square-mile tract at the mouth of the Minnesota River that will be used to establish a military post, Fort Snelling.
1806 The Lewis and Clark Expedition arrives back in St. Louis just over three years after its departure.
1864 Confederate and Union forces clash at Mount Jackson, Front Royal and Woodstock in Virginia during the Valley campaign.
1911 The Second International Aviation Meet opens in New York.
1912 Mack Sennett’s first “Keystone Cops” film debuts, Cohen Collects a Debt.
1945 The first American dies in Vietnam during the fall of Saigon to French forces.
1952 Richard Nixon responds to charges of a secret slush fund during his ‘Checkers Speech.’
1954 East German police arrest 400 citizens as U.S. spies.
1967 The Soviets sign a pact to send more aid to Hanoi.
1973 Juan Peron is re-elected president of Argentina after being overthrown in 1955.
1983 Gerrie Coetzee (Gerhardus Coetzee), a boxer from South Africa becomes the first boxer from the African continent to win a world heavyweight tittle (World Boxing Association).
1983 Gulf Air Flight 771 from Karachi, Pakistan, to Abu Dhabi, UAE, bombed; all 117 aboard die.
1992 The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) detonates 3,700-lb bomb in Belfast, completely destroying the Northern Ireland forensic laboratory, injuring 20 people and damaging 700 houses.
2002 The first public version of the Mozilla Firefox browser is released; originally called Phoenix 0.1 its name was changed due to trademark issues with Phoenix Technologies.
2004 Hurricane Jeanne causes severe flooding in Haiti; over 1,000 are reported dead.
Born on September 23
63 BC Augustus Caesar, first Roman Emperor, who introduced Pax Romana, the era of peace.
1800 William Holmes McGuffey, educator famous for his book Eclectic Readers.
1838 Victoria Claflin Woodhull, the first woman presidential candidate (1872) in the United States.
1863 Mary Church Terrell, educator and civil rights advocate.
1865 Emmuska Orczy, baroness and author of The Scarlet Pimpernel.
1889 Walter Lippmann, journalist, one of the founders of The New Republic Magazine in 1914.
1889 Louise Nevelson, sculptor.
1915 Clifford G. Shull, physicist, improved techniques for exploring the atomic structure of matter.
1926 John Coltrane, influential jazz saxophonist.
1930 Ray Charles, rhythm ‘n’ blues piano player and singer.
1934 Ahmad Shah, Crown Prince of Afghanistan and heir apparent to the throne.
1936 Valentin Corazao, Interim President of Peru (2000-01) after Pres. Alberto Fujimori was removed from office by Congress.
1943 Julio Iglesias, singer, songwriter with more than 400 certified gold and platinum records (“To All the Girls I’ve Loved Before,” “Summer Wind”).
1947 Mary Kay Place, Emmy-winning actress (Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman), singer.
1949 Bruce “The Boss” Springsteen, singer, songwriter, musician (“Born to Run,” “Born in the U.S.A”); his multiple awards include 20 Grammys, two Golden Globes, and an Oscar, the latter for “Streets of Philadelphia” (1994).
1961 William “Willie” McCool, American astronaut; among those killed when the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated while reentering Earth’s atmosphere (2003).

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