Today in History: October 30

Today in History
October 30

1270   The Seventh Crusade ends by the Treaty of Barbary.
1485   Henry VII of England is crowned.
1697   The Treaty of Ryswick ends the war between France and the Grand Alliance.
1838   Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Lorain County, Ohio becomes the first college in the U.S. to admit female students.
1899   Two battalions of British troops are cut off, surrounded and forced to surrender to General Petrus Joubert’s Boers at Nicholson’s Nek.
1905   The czar of Russia issues the October Manifesto, granting civil liberties and elections in an attempt to avert the burgeoning support for revolution.
1918   The Italians capture Vittorio Veneto and rout the Austro-Hungarian army.
1918   Turkey signs an armistice with the Allies, agreeing to end hostilities at noon, October 31.
1922   Mussolini sends his black shirts into Rome. The Fascist takeover is almost without bloodshed. The next day, Mussolini is made prime minister. He centralizes all power in himself as leader of the Fascist party and attempts to create an Italian empire, ultimately in alliance with Hitler‘s Germany.
1925   Scotsman John L. Baird performs first TV broadcast of moving objects.
1938   H.G. Wells’ War of the Worlds is broadcast over the radio by Orson Welles’ Mercury Theatre. Many panic believing it is an actual newscast about a Martian invasion.
1941   The U.S. destroyer Reuben James, on convoy duty off Iceland, is sunk by a German U-boat with the loss of 96 Americans.

Lieutenant Tony Fasson, Able Seaman Colin Grazier, and canteen assistant Tommy Brown from HMS Petard board the sinking submarine U-559, capturing code books that will help British code-breakers at Bletchley Park crack the German naval “Shark” Enigma cipher. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]

1950   The First Marine Division is ordered to replace the entire South Korean I Corps at the Chosin Reservoir area.
1953   US Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower formally approves a top secret document to maintain and expand the country’s nuclear arsenal.
1961   The USSR detonates “Tsar Bomba,” a 50-megaton hydrogen bomb; it is still (2016) the largest explosive device of any kind over detonated.
1965   US Marines repel multiple-wave attacks by the Viet Cong within a few miles of Da Nang where the Marines are based; a sketch of Marine positions was found on the body of a 13-year-old boy who had been selling the Americans drinks the previous day.
1973   The Bosphorus Bridge is completed at Istanbul, Turkey, connecting Europe and Asia over the Bosphorus Strait.
1974   The “Rumble in the Jungle,” a boxing match in Zaire that many regard as the greatest sporting event of the 20th century, takes place; challenger Muhammad Ali knocks out previously undefeated World Heavyweight Champion George Foreman.
1975   Prince Juan Carlos becomes acting head of state in Spain, replacing the ailing dictator Gen. Francisco Franco.
1985   The Space Shuttle Challenger lifts off for its final successful mission.
1991   BET Holdings Inc., becomes the first African-American company listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
2005   The rebuilt Dresden Frauenkirche (Church of Our Lady) that was destroyed during the firebombing of Dresden in WWII is rededicated.
Born on October 30
1735   John Adams, second president of the United States who helped draft the Declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Paris, ending the American Revolution.
1751   Richard Sheridan, playwright (The Rivals, The School for Scandal).
1839   Alfred Sisley, landscape painter.
1857   Gertrude Atherton, novelist.
1871   Paul Valery, poet and essayist.
1882   William F. “Bull” Halsey, Jr., American admiral who played an instrumental role in the defeat of Japan during World War II. The Japanese surrender was signed on his flagship, the USS Missouri.
1885   Ezra Pound, American poet who promoted Imagism, a poetic movement stressing free phrase rather than forced metric. He was imprisoned for his pro-Fascist radio broadcasts.
1896   Ruth Gordon, Oscar, Emmy and Golden Globe–winning actress (Harold and Maude, Rosemary’s Baby).
1906   Hermann Fegelein, SS general of WWII who was brother-in-law to Adolf Hitler‘s mistress Eva Braun.
1915   Fred W. Friendly, president of CBS News and co-creator of the documentary series See It Now, the program largely credited for bringing down Sen. Joe McCarthy.
1930   Clifford “Brownie” Brown, influential jazz trumpeter and composer (“Joy Spring,” “Daahoud”).
1936   Dick Vermeil, head coach of the National Football League’s Philadelphia Eagles (1976–1982), St. Louis Rams (1997–1999), and Kansas City Chiefs (2001–2005).
1939   Grace Slick, singer, songwriter; lead singer for the bands The Great Society, Jefferson Airplane, Jefferson Starship and Starship.
1945   Henry Winkler, actor, director, producer; rose to fame as “The Fonz” on Happy Days TV series, a role that twice earned him a Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Television Series Musical or Comedy.
1970   Tory Belleci, filmmaker and model maker known for his work on the Mythbusters TV series; also worked on two Star Wars films.

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