Today in History: October 25

Today in History
October 25

1415   An English army under Henry V defeats the French at Agincourt, France. The French out number Henry’s troops 60,000 to 12,000 but British longbows turn the tide of the battle.

A British fleet of 14 ships under Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Hawke defeats the French at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The battle puts an end to French naval operations for the rest of the War of the Austrian Succession, thus eliminating any threat of a French invasion of Britain. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]

1760   George III of England is crowned.
1854   During the Crimean War, a brigade of British light infantry is destroyed by Russian artillery as they charge down a narrow corridor in full view of the Russians.
1916   German pilot Rudolf von Eschwege shoots down his first enemy plane, a Nieuport 12 of the Royal Naval Air Service over Bulgaria.
1923   The Teapot Dome scandal comes to public attention as Senator Thomas J. Walsh of Montana, subcommittee chairman, reveals the findings of the past 18 months of investigation. His case will result in the conviction of Harry F. Sinclair of Mammoth Oil, and later Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall, the first cabinet member in American history to go to jail. The scandal, named for the Teapot Dome oil reserves in Wyoming, involved Fall secretly leasing naval oil reserve lands to private companies.
1941   German troops capture Kharkov and launch a new drive toward Moscow.
1944   The Japanese are defeated in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the world’s largest sea engagement. From this point on, the depleted Japanese Navy increasingly resorts to the suicidal attacks of Kamikaze fighters.
1950   Chinese Communist Forces launch their first-phase offensive across the Yalu River into North Korea.
1951   In a general election, England’s Labour Party loses to the Conservatives. Winston Churchill becomes prime minister and Anthony Eden becomes foreign secretary.
1954   President Dwight Eisenhower conducts the first televised Cabinet meeting.
1958   The last U.S. troops leave Beirut.
1960   Martin Luther King, Jr., is sentenced to four months in jail for a sit-in.
1962   Adlai Stevenson shows photos to the UN Security Council that prove Soviet missiles have been installed in Cuba.
1962   In South Africa, civil rights activist Nelson Mandela is sentenced to 5 years in prison.
1971   The United Nations expels the Republic of China and seats the People’s Republic of China.
1983   1,800 U.S. troops and 300 Caribbean troops land on Grenada. U.S. forces soon turn up evidence of a strong Cuban and Soviet presence–large stores of arms and documents suggesting close links to Cuba.
1991   The last soldiers of the Yugoslav People’s Army leave the Republic of Slovenia.
2009   Terrorist bombings in Baghdad kill over 150 and wound over 700.
Born on October 25
1825   Johann Strauss, composer.
1838   Georges Bizet, composer, best known for his opera Carmen.
1881   Pablo Picasso, painter and sculptor of over 6,000 works.
1888   Richard E. Byrd, U.S. aviator and explorer who made the first flight over the North Pole.
1889   Abel Gance, film director (Napoleon).
1902   Henry Steele Commager, American historian who wrote the fifty-five volume Rise of the American Nation.
1914   John Berryman, poet.
1941   Anne Tyler, novelist (The Accidental Tourist, Ladder of Years).
1957   Nancy Cartwright, voice actress; voice of Bart Simpson and other characters in the long-running animated TV series The Simpsons.
1964   Nicole, German singer, won 1982 Eurovision Song Contest singing “Ein biSSchen Frieden” (“A Little Peace”); the English version reached No. 1 on the UK Singles Chart.
1970   Adam Pascal, actor, singer (Rent; Aida).
1971   Midori Goto, violinist.
1984   Katy Perry, singer, songwriter; (“Part of Me”; “Roar”) named Billboard magazine’s Woman of the Year 2012.
2001   Princess Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant; heiress apparent to the Belgian throne.

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