October 1

331BC   Alexander the Great decisively shatters King Darius III’s Persian army at Gaugamela (Arbela), in a tactical masterstroke that leaves him master of the Persian Empire.
1791   In Paris, the National Legislative Assembly holds its first meeting.
1827   The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination of Armenia. For his victory in the Russo-Persian War, Paskevich will be made Count of Yerevan in 1828. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]
1847   Maria Mitchell, an American astronomer, discovers a comet and is elected the same day to the American Academy of Arts—the first woman to be so honored. The King of Denmark will award her a gold medal for her discovery.
1864   The Condor, a British blockade-runner, is grounded near Fort Fisher, North Carolina.
1878   General Lew Wallace is sworn in as governor of New Mexico Territory. He goes on to deal with the Lincoln County War, Billy the Kid and write Ben-Hur. His Civil War heroics earned him the moniker Savior of Cincinnati.
1908   The Ford Model T, the first car for millions of Americans, hits the market. Over 15 million Model Ts are eventually sold, all of them black.
1918   Arab forces under T. E. Lawrence, also known as “Lawrence of Arabia,” capture Damascus. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]
1939   After a one-month Siege of Warsaw, hostile Nazi forces enter Poland’s capital city. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]
1942   The German Army grinds to a complete halt within the city of Stalingrad.
1943   British troops in Italy enter Naples and occupy Foggia airfield.
1944   The U.S. First Army begins the siege of Aachen, Germany.
1946   Eleven Nazi war criminals are sentenced to be hanged at Nuremberg trialsHermann Goring, Alfred Jodl, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Fritz Sauckel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Julius Streicher, and Alfred Rosenberg.
1947   The first flight of an F-86 Sabre jet fighter, which would win fame in the Korean War takes place.
1949   Mao Zedong establishes the People’s Republic of China.
1957   “In God We Trust” appears on US paper currency as an act to distinguish the US from the officially atheist USSR; the motto had appeared on coins at various times since 1864.
1961   The Federal Republic of Cameroon is formed by the merger of East and West Cameroon.
1974   Five Nixon aides–Kenneth Parkinson, Robert Mardian, Nixon’s Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, and U.S. Attorney General John Mitchell–go on trial for conspiring to hinder the Watergate investigation.
1979   The US returns sovereignty of the Panama Canal to Panama.
1991   The Siege of Dubrovnik begins in the Croatian War of Independence.
Born on October 1
1837   Robert Gould Shaw, commander of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment during America’s Civil War.
1904   Vladimir Horowitz, Russian-born American virtuoso pianist.
1924   Jimmy Carter, 39th president of the U.S. (1977-1981)
1932   Albert Collins, guitarist.
1935   Julie Andrews (Julia Elizabeth Wells), actress and singer whose films include Mary Poppins and The Sound of Music.
1946   Tim O’Brien, novelist (The Things They Carried, In the Lake of the Woods).
1947   Dave Arneson, game designer; co-created Dungeons & Dragons roleplaying game with Gary Gygax, establishing the roleplaying game genre.
1950   Randy Quaid, actor (The Last Detail; won a Golden Globe for his portrayal of Pres. Lyndon Johnson in LBJ: The Early Years).
1955   Jeff Reardon, pro baseball pitcher known as “The Terminator” for his intimidating pitching mound presence and 98 mph fastball.
1963   Mark McGwire, “Big Mac,” pro baseball player who broke Roger Maris’ single-season home run record; admitted in 2010 to using performance-enhancing drugs throughout his career.
1964   Max Matsuura (Masato Matsuura), record producer, president of Avex Group, one of Japan’s largest music labels.

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