Today in History

November 22
1220 After promising to go to the aid of the Fifth Crusade within nine months, Frederick II is crowned emperor by Pope Honorius III.
1542 New laws are passed in Spain giving Indians in America protection against enslavement.
1757 The Austrian army defeats the Prussians at Breslau in the Seven Years War.
1847 In New York, the Astor Place Opera House, the city’s first operatic theater, is opened.
1902 A fire causes considerable damage to the unfinished Williamsburg bridge in New York.
1915 The Anglo-Indian army, led by British General Sir Charles Townshend, attacks a larger Turkish force under General Nur-ud-Din at Ctesiphon, Iraq, but is repulsed.
1919 A Labor conference committee in the United States urges an eight-hour workday and a 48-hour week.
1928 British King George VI is confined to bed with a congested lung; the queen is to take over his duties.
1935 Pan Am inaugurates the first transpacific airmail service from San Francisco to Manila.
1936 1,200 soldiers are killed in a battle between the Japanese and the Mongolians in China.
1942 Soviet troops complete the encirclement of the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chinese Premier Chiang Kai-shek meet in Cairo, Egypt, to discuss ways to defeat Japan. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin does not attend the Cairo Conference (code-named Sextant) out of concern that his meeting with Chiang will cause friction between the Soviet Union and Japan. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]

1948 Ho Chi Minh‘s Democratic Republic of Vietnam requests admittance to the UN.
1963 Lee Harvey Oswald assassinates President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas. Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president.
1964 Almost 40,000 people pay tribute to John F. Kennedy at Arlington Cemetery on the first anniversary of his death.
1973 Great Britain announces a plan for moderate Protestants and Catholics to share power in Northern Ireland.
1980 Eighteen Communist Party secretaries in 49 provinces are ousted from Poland.
1982 President Ronald Reagan calls for defense-pact deployment of the MX missile.
1986 The Justice Department finds a memo in Lt. Col. Oliver North’s office on the transfer of $12 million to the Contras of Nicaragua from an Iranian arms sale.
1988 The first prototype of a B-2 Spirit strategic stealth bomber is unveiled for public viewing.
1989 Lebanese President Rene Moawad is killed when a bomb explodes near his motorcade in West Beirut.
1990 Britain’s Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher confirms the end of her premiership by withdrawing from the leadership election of the Conservative Party.
1995 The first feature-length film created entirely with computer generated imagery – Toy Story – premiers.
2004 The Orange Revolution, protesting a primary election believed to have been rigged, begins in the Ukraine. On Dec 26 Ukraine’s Supreme Court orders a revote.
2005 Angela Merkel becomes the first woman ever to be Chancellor of Germany; the former research scientist had previously been the first secretary-general of the Christian Democratic Union.
2008 Hamas and Israel begin a cease-fire following eight days of violence and 150 deaths.
Born on November 22
1819 George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans), English novelist (Silas Marner, Middlemarch).
1890 Charles de Gaulle, French general in exile during World War II and president of France from 1958 to 1969.
1899 Hoagy Carmichael, American composer, pianist and singer.
1913 Benjamin Britten, English composer, pianist and conductor.
1924 Geraldine Page, actress well known for roles in Tennessee Williams’ plays.
1925 Gunther Schuller, composer and French Horn player.
1943 Billie Jean King, U.S. tennis player and women’s rights pioneer.
1949 David Pietrusza, historian, author (1920, 1960, 1948).
1950 Steven Van Zandt, singer, songwriter, musician, producer (E Street Band, Steel Mill, Southside Johnny & The Ashbury Jukes) and actor (The Sopranos).
1958 Jamie Lee Curtis, actress (Halloween, Trading Places, A Fish Called Wanda), author (Today I Feel Silly, and Other Moods That Make My Day).
1961 Mariel Hemingway, actress (Lipstick, Manhattan).
1984 Scarlett Johansson, actress, model (North, Lost in Translation).

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