Today in History
March 23

1657   France and England form an alliance against Spain.
1743   Handel’s Messiah is performed for the first time in London.
1775   American revolutionary hero Patrick Henry, while addressing the House of Burgesses, declares “Give me liberty, or give me death!”
1791   Etta Palm, a Dutch champion of woman’s rights, sets up a group of women’s clubs called the Confederation of the Friends of Truth.
1848   Hungary proclaims its independence from Austria.
1857   Elisha Otis installs the first modern passenger elevator in a public building, at the corner of Broome Street and Broadway in New York City.
1858   Eleazer A. Gardner of Philadelphia patents the cable street car, which runs on overhead cables.
1862   Confederate General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson faces his only defeat at the Battle of Kernstown, VA.
1880   John Stevens of Neenah, Wis., patents the grain crushing mill. This mill allows flour production to increase by 70 percent.
1901   A group of U.S. Army soldiers, led by Brigadier General Frederick Funston, capture Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Philippine Insurrection of 1899.
1903   The Wright brothers obtain an airplane patent.
1909   British Lt. Ernest Shackleton finds the magnetic South Pole.
1909   Theodore Roosevelt begins an African safari sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and the National Geographic Society.
1917   Austrian Emperor Charles I makes a peace proposal to French President Poincare.
1920   Great Britain denounces the United States because of its delay in joining the League of Nations.
1921   Arthur G. Hamilton sets a new parachute record, safely jumping 24,400 feet.
1927   Captain Hawthorne Gray sets a new balloon record soaring to 28,510 feet.
1933   The Reichstag gives Adolf Hitler the power to rule by decree.
1942   The Japanese occupy the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean.
1951   U.S. paratroopers descend from flying boxcars in a surprise attack in Korea.
1956   Pakistan becomes the first Islamic republic, although it is still within the British Commonwealth.
1967   Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. calls the Vietnam War the biggest obstacle to the civil rights movement.
1970   Mafia boss Carlo Gambino is arrested for plotting to steal $3 million.
1972   The United States calls a halt to the peace talks on Vietnam being held in Paris.
1981   the U.S. Supreme Court upholds a law making statutory rape a crime for men but not women.
Born on March 23
1900   Erich Fromm, German psychologist (The Sane Society).
1907   Daniel Bovet, Swiss-born Italian pharmacologist and Nobel Prize Winner.
1908   Joan Crawford, American actress.
1910   Akira Kurosawa, film director (Rashomon, The Seven Samurai).
1912   Werner von Braun, German-born rocket pioneer.
1929   Sir Roger Bannister, the first man to run the mile in less than four minutes.

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