Today in History
June 28

1635   The French colony of Guadeloupe is established in the Caribbean.
1675   Frederick William of Brandenburg crushes the Swedes.
1709   Russians defeat the Swedes and Cossacks at the Battle of Poltava.
1776   Colonists repulse a British sea attack on Charleston, South Carolina.
1778   The Continental Army under General George Washington attacks the rear of a British Army column commanded by Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton as they leave Monmouth Court House in New Jersey.

The opposing forces in the Battle of Monmouth Courthouse, as the engagement will come to be known, fight to a standstill, and the British withdraw under cover of darkness. During the battle, Mary “Molly Pitcher” Hays McCauley, wife of an American artilleryman, carries water to the soldiers during the battle. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]

1839   Cinque and other Africans are kidnapped and sold into slavery in Cuba.
1862   Fighting continues between Union and Confederate forces during the Seven Days’ campaign.
1863   General George Meade replaces General Joseph Hooker three days before the Battle of Gettysburg.
1874   The Freedmen’s Bank, created to assist former slaves in the United States, closes. Customers of the bank lose $3 million.
1884   Congress declares Labor Day a legal holiday.
1902   Congress passes the Spooner bill, authorizing a canal to be built across the Isthmus of Panama.
1911   Samuel J. Battle becomes the first African-American policeman in New York City.
1914   Austria’s Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated at Sarajevo, Serbia.
1919   Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles under protest.
1921   A coal strike in Britain is settled after three months.
1930   More than 1,000 communists are routed during an assault on the British consulate in London.
1938   Congress creates the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) to insure construction loans.
1942   German troops launch an offensive to seize Soviet oil fields in the Caucasus and the city of Stalingrad.
1945   General Douglas MacArthur announces the end of Japanese resistance in the Philippines.
1949   The last U.S. combat troops are called home from Korea, leaving only 500 advisers.
1950   General Douglas MacArthur arrives in South Korea as Seoul falls to the North.
1954   French troops begin to pull out of Vietnam’s Tonkin province.
1964   Malcolm X founds the Organization for Afro-American Unity to seek independence for blacks in the Western Hemisphere.
1967   14 people are shot during race riots in Buffalo, New York.
1970   Muhammad Ali [Cassius Clay] stands before the Supreme Court regarding his refusal of induction into the U.S. Army during the Vietnam War.
1971   The Supreme Court overturns the draft evasion conviction of Muhammad Ali.
1972   Richard Nixon announces that no new draftees will be sent to Vietnam.
1976   The first women enter the U.S. Air Force Academy.
Born on June 28
1491   Henry VIII, King of England (1509-1547), founder of the Church of England.
1577   Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter.
1712   Jean Jacques Rousseau, French social philosopher (The Social Contract).
1867   Luigi Pirandello, Italian playwright (Six Characters in Search of an Author).
1873   Alexis Carrel, Nobel Prize-winning French surgeon and biologist.
1891   Esther Forbes, author (Johnny Tremain).
1902   Richard Rodgers, American composer.
1906   Maria Goeppert Mayer, Nobel Prize-winning physicist.
1909   Eric Ambler, British mystery writer (The Dark Frontier, Uncommon Danger).
1926   Mel Brooks, comedian, actor, and director (The Producers, Blazing Saddles).
1947   Mark Helprin, novelist (Winter’s Tale).

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