Today in History
July 24

1505   On their way to India, a group of Portuguese explorers sack the city-state of Kilwa.
1567   Mary, Queen of Scots, is imprisoned and forced to abdicate her throne to her 1-year-old son James VI.
1701   Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac establishes Fort Pontchartrain for France at present-day Detroit, Michigan.
1704   Admiral George Rooke takes Gibraltar from the Spanish.
1766   At Fort Ontario, Canada, Ottawa chief Pontiac and William Johnson sign a peace agreement.
1791   Robespierre expels all Jacobins opposed to the principles of the French Revolution.
1847   The first members of Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) arrive in Utah, settling in present-day Salt Lake City.
1862   The eighth president of the United States, Martin Van Buren, dies at the age of 79.
1897   African-American soldiers of the 25th Infantry Bicycle Corps arrive in St. Louis, Mo., after completing a 40-day bike ride from Missoula, Montana.
1929   The Kellogg–Briand Pact, which renounces war as an instrument of foreign policy, goes into effect. Signatory states have promised not to use war to resolve “disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them.”

The pact—officially the General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy—was signed by Germany, France, and the United States on August 27, 1928, and by most other nations soon after that. It is named after its authors, U.S. Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]

1941   The U.S. government denounces Japanese actions in Indochina.
1942   The Soviet city of Rostov is captured by German troops.
1950   The U.S. Fifth Air Force relocates from Japan to Korea.
1974   The Supreme Court rules that President Richard Nixon must surrender the Watergate tapes.
Born on July 24
1783   Simon Bolivar, South American soldier and statesman.
1786   Jean-Louis Nicollet, French explorer.
1802   Alexandre Dumas, French author (The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers).
1895   Robert Graves, poet and novelist (Goodbye to All That).
1897   Amelia Earhart, aviation pioneer.
1900   Zelda Sayre, writer (Save Me the Waltz).
1916   John D. MacDonald, author.
1920   Bella Abzug, the first Jewish woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.

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