Today in History
July 22

1298   King Edward I defeats the Scots under William Wallace at Falkirk.
1515   Emperor Maximilian and Vladislav of Bohemia forge an alliance between the Hapsburg and Jagiello dynasties in Vienna.
1652   Prince Conde’s rebels narrowly defeat Chief Minister Mazarin’s loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris.
1789   Thomas Jefferson becomes the first head of the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs.
1812   A British army under the Duke of Wellington defeats the French at Salamanca, Spain.
1814   Five Indian tribes in Ohio make peace with the United States and declare war on Britain.
1864   Confederate General John Bell Hood leads an unsuccessful attack on Union troops under General William T. Sherman on Bald Hill, outside Atlanta.
Union Major General James B. McPherson is killed during the engagement, which will become known as the Battle of Atlanta. McPherson will be one of the highest-ranking Union officers killed in action during the Civil War. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]
1881   The first volume of The War of the Rebellion: A compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, is published.
1894   The first automobile race takes place between Paris and Rouen, France.
1934   American gangster John Dillinger is shot dead by FBI officers outside a Chicago cinema.
1938   The Third Reich issues special identity cards for Jewish Germans.
1943   Palermo, Sicily surrenders to General George S. Patton‘s Seventh Army.
1966   B-52 bombers hit the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam for the first time.
Born on July 22
1822   Gregor Johann Mendel, Austrian botanist, genetics pioneer.
1849   Emma Lazarus, American poet.
1881   Margery Williams Bianco, author (The Velveteen Rabbit).
1882   Edward Hopper, painter (Nighthawks).
1887   Gustav Hertz, German physicist.
1888   Selman Abraham Waksman, biochemist.
1893   Karl Menninger, American physician, founder of the Menninger Foundation.
1898   Stephen Vincent Benet, poet and short-story writer (John Brown’s Body).
1898   Alexander Calder, sculptor.
1908   Amy Vanderbilt, American journalist, etiquette authority.
1923   Robert Dole, U.S. Senator and presidential candidate.
1932   Megan Terry, playwright (Calm Down Mother, Goona Goona).
1936   Tom Robbins, novelist (Another Roadside Attraction, Even Cowgirls Get the Blues).
1946   Paul Schrader, screenwriter and film director (Taxi Driver).

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