Today in History
July 21

1403   Henry IV defeats the Percys in the Battle of Shrewsbury in England.
1667   The Peace of Breda ends the Second Anglo-Dutch War and cedes Dutch New Amsterdam to the English.
1711   Russia and Turkey sign the Treaty of Pruth, ending the year-long Russo-Turkish War.
1718   The Treaty of Passarowitz is signed by Austria, Venice and the Ottoman Empire.
1773   Pope Clement XIV abolishes the Jesuit order.
1798   Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Arab Mameluke warriors at the Battle of the Pyramids.
1861   At Manassas Junction, Virginia, the first major battle of the Civil War—an engagement that will become known as the First Battle of Bull Run—begins and ends in a victory for the Confederate army.

In Washington, President Abraham Lincoln and members of his cabinet wait for news of a Union victory. Instead, a telegram arrives with this message: “General McDowell’s army in full retreat through Centreville. The day is lost. Save Washington and the remnants of this army.” [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]

1865   Wild Bill Hickok kills gunman Dave Tutt in Springfield, Missouri, in what is regarded as the first formal quick-draw duel.
1873   The James Gang robs a train in Adair, Iowa.
1896   Mary Church Terrell founds the National Association of Colored Women in Washington, D.C.
1906   French Captain Alfred Dreyfus is vindicated of his earlier court-martial for spying for Germany.
1919   The British House of Lords ratifies the Versailles Treaty.
1925   John Scopes is found guilty for teaching evolution in Dayton, Tenn., and is fined $100.
1941   France accepts Japan’s demand for military control of Indochina.
1944   U.S. Army and Marine forces land on Guam in the Marianas.
1954   The French sign an armistice with the Viet Minh that ends the war but divides Vietnam into two countries.
1960   Sirimavo Bandaranaike becomes the first woman prime minister of Ceylon.
Born on July 21
1881   Frederick Dick, physician.
1899   Hart Crane, poet (The Bridge).
1899   Ernest Hemingway, American novelist and short-story writer.
1911   Marshall McLuhan, communication theorist (The Medium is the Message).
1920   Isaac Stern, Russian-born violinist.
1921   Billy Taylor, jazz pianist.
1933   John Gardner, poet and novelist (Grendel, October Light).
1943   Tess Gallagher, American writer.
1952   Robin Williams, American comedian and actor.

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