Today in History
July 12

1096   Crusaders under Peter the Hermit reach Sofia in Hungary.
1691   William III defeats the allied Irish and French armies at the Battle of Aughrim, Ireland.
1794   British Admiral Lord Nelson loses his right eye at the siege of Calvi, in Corsica.
1806   The Confederation of the Rhine is established in Germany.
1862   The U.S. Congress authorizes the Medal of Honor, the highest and most prestigious personal military decoration that may be awarded to recognize U.S. military service members who distinguished themselves by acts of valor. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]
1941   Moscow is bombed by the German Luftwaffe for the first time.
1954   President Dwight D. Eisenhower proposes a highway modernization program, with costs to be shared by federal and state governments.
1957   The U.S. surgeon general, Leroy E. Burney, reports that there is a direct link between smoking and lung cancer.
1974   G. Gordon Liddy, John Ehrlichman and two others are convicted of conspiracy and perjury in connection with the Watergate scandal.
1984   Democratic presidential candidate Walter Mondale chooses Geraldine Ferraro as his running mate.
Born on July 12
100 BC   Gaius Julius Caesar, Roman general and statesman.
1817   Henry David Thoreau, essayist, naturalist and poet (Walden).
1854   George Eastman, photography pioneer.
1884   Amedeo Modigliani, Italian painter and sculptor.
1895   Kirsten Flagstad, Norwegian opera singer.
1895   R. Buckminster Fuller, architect and engineer.
1904   Pablo Neruda, Chilean poet and political activist (Residence on Earth).
1908   Milton Berle, comedian, actor.
1917   Andrew Wyeth, American painter.
1934   Van Cliburn, American concert pianist.
1937   Bill Cosby, comedian, actor.

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