Today in History
July 11

1302   An army of French knights, led by the Count of Artois, is routed by Flemish pikemen.
1346   Charles IV of Luxembourg is elected Holy Roman Emperor in Germany.
1533   Henry VIII is excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Clement VII.
1708   The French are defeated at Oudenarde, Malplaquet, in the Netherlands by the Duke of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy.
1786   Morocco agrees to stop attacking American ships in the Mediterranean for a payment of $10,000.
1799   An Anglo-Turkish armada bombards Napoleon Bonaparte‘s troops in Alexandria to no avail.
1804   Alexander Hamilton is mortally wounded by Aaron Burr in a duel.
1862   President Abraham Lincoln appoints General Henry Halleck as general-in-chief of the Federal army.
1882   The British Mediterranean Fleet begins the Bombardment of Alexandria in Egypt as part of the Anglo-Egyptian War. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]
1942   In the RAF’s longest bombing raid of World War II, 44 British Lancaster bombers attack the Polish port of Danzig.
1972   American forces break the 95-day siege at An Loc in Vietnam.
1975   Archaeologists unearth an army of 8,000 life-size clay figures created more than 2,000 years ago for the Emperor Qin Shi Huang.
1995   Full diplomatic relations are established between the United States and Vietnam.
Born on July 11
1274   Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland (1306-1329).
1767   John Quincy Adams, Sixth President of the United States (1825-1829).
1838   John Wanamaker, U.S. merchant, founder of one of the first American department stores.
1899   E.B. White, author (Charlotte’s Web).
1927   Theodore H. Maiman, physicist.

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