Today in History

July 1

69   Vespasian, a Roman army leader, is hailed as a Roman emperor by the Egyptian legions.
1543   England and Scotland sign the Peace of Greenwich.
1596   An English fleet under the Earl of Essex, Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Vere capture and sack Cadiz, Spain.
1690   Led by Marshall Luxembourg, the French defeat the forces of the Grand Alliance at Fleurus in the Netherlands.
1777   British troops depart from their base at the Bouquet River to head toward Ticonderoga, New York.
1798   Napoleon Bonaparte takes Alexandria, Egypt.
1838   Charles Darwin presents a paper on his theory of evolution to the Linnean Society in London.
1862   Union artillery stops a Confederate attack at Malvern Hill, Virginia.
1863   In the first day’s fighting at Gettysburg, Federal forces retreat through the town and dig in at Cemetery Ridge and Cemetery Hill.
1867   Canada, by the terms of the British North America Act, becomes an independent dominion.
1876   Montenegro declares war on the Turks.
1898   The Battle of San Juan Hill is fought in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. It will be the bloodiest and most famous battle of the Spanish–American War, and also the greatest victory for Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders, who will go on to become the vice president and then the president of the United States. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History]
1916   The Battle of the Somme begins. Approximately 30,000 men are killed on the first day, two-thirds of them British.
1942   Axis troops capture Sevastopol, Crimea, in the Soviet Union.
1945   The New York State Commission Against Discrimination is established–the first such agency in the United States.
1950   American ground troops arrive in South Korea to halt the advancing North Korean army.
1961   British troops land in Kuwait to aid against Iraqi threats.
1963   The U.S. postmaster introduces the ZIP code.
1966   The U.S. Marines launch Operation Holt in an attempt to finish off a Vietcong battalion in Thua Thien Province in Vietnam.
Born on July 1
1649   Gottfried Von Leibniz, German philosopher and mathematician.
1804   George Sand (Amandine-Aurore Lucile Dupin), French novelist.
1876   Susan Glaspell, playwright, (Alison’s House).
1892   James M. Cain, author (The Postman Always Rings Twice, Mildred Pierce).
1899   Thomas Dorsey, American songwriter, singer and pianist, the “father of gospel music.”
1902   William Wyler, film director (The Best Years of Our Lives, Ben Hur).
1903   Amy Johnson, English aviator.
1915   Willie Dixon, blues musician.
1915   Sydney Pollack, film director (Tootsie, Out of Africa).
1915   Jean Stafford, American writer (The Mountain Lion).
1916   Roland Robert Tuck, British fighter ace during World War II.
1961   Diana Frances Spencer, Princess of Wales.

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