Today in History
December 1

1135   Henry I of England dies and the crown is passed to his nephew, Stephen of Blois.
1581   Edmund Champion and other Jesuit martyrs are hanged at Tyburn, England, for sedition, after being tortured.
1861   The U.S. gunboat Penguin seizes the Confederate blockade runner Albion carrying supplies worth almost $100,000.
1862   President Abraham Lincoln gives the State of the Union address to the 37th Congress.
1863   Belle Boyd, a Confederate spy, is released from prison in Washington.
1881   Virgil, Wyatt and Morgan Earp are exonerated in court for their action in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, AZ.
1900   Kaiser Wilhelm II refuses to meet with Boer leader Paul Kruger in Berlin.
1905   Twenty officers and 230 guards are arrested in St. Petersburg, Russia, for the revolt at the Winter Palace.
1908   The Italian Parliament debates the future of the Triple Alliance and asks for compensation for Austria’s action in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
1909   President William Howard Taft severs official relations with Nicaragua’s Zelaya government and declares support for the revolutionaries.
1916   King Constantine of Greece refuses to surrender to the Allies.
1918   An American army of occupation enters Germany.
1925   After a seven-year occupation, 7,000 British troops evacuate Cologne, Germany.
1933   Nazi storm troops become an official organ of the Reich.
1934   Josef Stalin’s aide, Sergei Kirov, is assassinated in Leningrad.
1941   Japan’s Tojo rejects U.S. proposals for a Pacific settlement as fantastic and unrealistic.
1941   Great Britain declares a state of emergency in Malaya following reports of Japanese attacks.
1942   National gasoline rationing goes into effect in the United States.
1955   Rosa Parks refuses to sit in the back of a Montgomery, Alabama, bus, defying the South’s segregationist laws.
1969   America’s first draft lottery since 1942 is held.
1971   The Indian Army recaptures part of Kashmir, which had been occupied by Pakistan.
1981   The AIDS virus is officially recognized.
1986   Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North pleads the 5th Amendment before a Senate panel investigating the Iran-Contra arms sale.
1988   Benazir Bhutto, politician, becomes the first woman to serve as Prime Minister of Pakistan and the first woman elected to lead a Muslim state
1989   East Germany’s parliament changes its constitution, abolishing a section that gave the Communist Party the leading role in the state.
1990   Channel Tunnel sections from France and the UK meet beneath the English Channel.
1991   Ukraine’s voters overwhelmingly approve a referendum for independence from the USSR.
2001   Trans World Airlines’ final flight takes place following the carrier’s purchase by American Airlines; TWA began operating 76 years earlier. The final flight, 220, piloted by Capt. Bill Compton, landed at St. Louis International Airport.
Born on December 1
1761   Madame Tussaud, Swiss-born modeler-in-wax who founded the world-famous exhibition on London’s Baker Street.
1847   Julia Moore, poet.
1863   Oliver Herford, American humorist and poet.
1886   Rex Stout, writer, creator of the detective character Nero Wolfe.
1913   Mary Martin, American actress.
1925   Martin Rodbell, Nobel Prize-winning biochemist.
1935   Woody Allen [Allen Stewart Konigsberg], American actor, writer and director (Annie Hall).
1940   Richard Pryor, influential comedian, actor, satirist.
1945   Bette Midler, singer, songwriter, actress, producer; her awards include 3 Grammys, 4 Golden Globes, 3 Emmys and a special Tony for her contribution to Broadway (1974).
1949   Pablo Escobar, Colombian drug lord whose Medellin Cartel killed thousands.
1958   Candace Bushnell, author (Sex and the City, The Carrie Diaries).
1966   Andrew Adamson, New Zealand film director, producer, screenwriter (Shrek; The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe); he was made a member of the New Zealand Order of Merit in 2006.

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