April 23

1348   The first English order of knighthood is founded.
1500   Pedro Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal.
1521   The Comuneros are crushed by royalist troops in Spain.
1661   Charles II is formally crowned king, returning the monarchy to Britain, albeit with greatly reduced powers.
1759   British forces seize Basse-Terre and Guadeloupe from France.
1789   President George Washington moves into Franklin House, New York.
1826   Missolonghi falls to Egyptian forces.
1856   Free Stater J.N. Mace in Westport, Kansas shoots pro-slavery sheriff Samuel Jones in the back.
1865   Union cavalry units continue to skirmish with Confederate forces in Henderson, North Carolina and Munford’s Station, Alabama.
1895   Russia, France, and Germany force Japan to return the Liaodong peninsula to China.
1896   Motion pictures premiere in New York City.
1914   The Federals defeat Kansas City 9-1 in the first major league game to be played in Chicago’s Weeghman Park, later renamed Wrigley Field.
1915   The ACA becomes the National Advisory Council on Aeronautics (NACA), the forerunner of NASA.
1920   The Turkish Grand National Assembly has first meeting in Ankara.
1924   The U.S. Senate passes the Soldiers’ Bonus Bill.
1945   The Soviet Army fights its way into Berlin.
1950   Chiang Kai-shek evacuates Hainan, leaving mainland China to Mao Zedong and the communists.
1954   The Army-McCarthy hearings begin.
1966   President Lyndon Johnson publicly appeals for more nations to come to the aid of South Vietnam.
1969   Sirhan Sirhan is sentenced to death for killing Senator Robert Kennedy.
1971   The Soviet Union launches Soyuz 10, becoming the first mission to the Salyut 1 space station.
Born on April 23
1791   James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States (1857-1861).
1813   Stephen A. Douglas, American politician.
1897   Lucius D. Clay, U.S. military governor of occupied Berlin.
1902   Halldór Laxness, Nobel Prize-winning Icelandic novelist (The Fish Can Sing, Paradise Reclaimed).
1926   J.P. Donleavy, American-born Irish writer (The Ginger Man).
1926   Virgil I. “Gus” Grissom, Mercury and Gemini astronaut, died in an accident on Apollo 1.
1928   Shirley Temple Black, child actress, later U.S. ambassador.
1932   Jim Fixx, runner and writer who popularized running as a form of exercise in the 1970s.

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